A category of adult stem cells is represented by mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are found in very large numbers in the bone marrow and Wharton’s Jelly region of the umbilical cord (Wharton’s Jelly or “Wharton jelly” is mucoid connective tissue that constitutes the extracellular matrix of the umbilical cord and includes blood vessels, protecting them).
Mesenchymal stem cells are the source of development of various tissue structures (e.g. nerve tissue, heart tissue, muscle tissue, bone tissue and so on). As hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells are defined by three fundamental characteristics: low specialization, increased auto replication capacity (multiplication), the ability to differentiate, giving rise to mature cells capable to perform functions in the body.
Mesenchymal stem cells in umbilical cord : antigenicity (the ability to trigger an immune response)-being very well tolerated in the immunological point of view in the context of a transplant are easily taken the mesenchymal stem cells, can be isolated in a section of umbilical cord blood collected at birth. They may be available as soon as requested by authorized clinics in therapies with such cells, they have high compatibility, they show the ability of high multiplication-being known as that of multiplication and differentiation capacity cell decreases with increasing age, the dealer’s.
The number of mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow decreases from a stem mesenchymal cell – 10,000 mononucleate cells from newborns to 1/100,000 in teens, reaching finally to 1/1,000,000 in adults.
In addition, the number of adult mesenchymal stem cells is 1000-5000 cells stem/cm3 of blood cord and 10,000-15,000/cm of cord tissue.
Due to their high plasticity, mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into bone cells, cartilage, nerve, kidney; liver is a real perspective of regenerative medicine, with the potential for tissue and organs regeneration.
Clinical trials have demonstrated that by their actions and immunosuppressive action, mesenchymal stem cells transplantation with hematopoietic stem cells reduce the rejection probability due to imperfect compatibility of hematopoietic stem cells in alogenic transplant.
Mesenchymal stem cells are going to be extremely useful in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Chron’s disease due to their immunomodulatory potential.
Recent research in the field of tissue engineering has demonstrated the possibility of obtaining of valves and capillaries.
Also still in clinical trials, mesenchymal stem cells are used as transport vehicles for antitumor drugs, gene therapy in treatment of hard-to-reach goal.